什么是openstack的 metadata

metadata字面上是元数据,是一个不容易理解的概念。在除了openstack的其他场合也经常会碰到。openstack里的metadata,是提供一个机制给用户,可以设定每一个instance 的参数。

具体可以参见openstack的相关api和以下的蓝图:

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/nova/+spec/openstack-api-metadata

比如你想给instance设置某个属性,比如主机名。metadata的一个重要应用,是设置每个instance的ssh公钥。公钥的设置有两种方式:

1、创建instance时注入文件镜像

2、启动instance后,通过metadata获取,然后用脚本写入

第二种方式更加灵活,可以给非root用户注入公钥。以下是获取ssh key的代码片段:

# Fetch public key using HTTP
ATTEMPTS=10
while [ ! -f /root/.ssh/authorized_keys ]; do
    curl -f http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key > /tmp/aws-key 2>/dev/null
    if [ \$? -eq 0 ]; then
        cat /tmp/aws-key >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        chmod 0600 /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        restorecon /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        rm -f /tmp/aws-key
        echo "Successfully retrieved AWS public key from instance metadata"
    else
        FAILED=\$((\$FAILED + 1))
        if [ \$FAILED -ge \$ATTEMPTS ]; then
            echo "Failed to retrieve AWS public key after \$FAILED attempts, quitting"
            break
        fi
        echo "Could not retrieve AWS public key (attempt #\$FAILED/\$ATTEMPTS), retrying in 5 seconds..."
        sleep 5
    fi
done

可以看到,获取metadata的api接口是:

http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key

可是,这个IP地址,在我们 openstack 是不存在的。为什么可以获取到metadata呢?

这是由于Amazon的原因,最早metadata是亚马逊提出来的,参见:

http://docs.amazonwebservices.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/AESDG-chapter-instancedata.html

后来很多人给亚马逊定制了一些操作系统的镜像,比如 ubuntu, fedora, centos 等等,而且将里面获取 metadta 的api地址也写死了。所以opentack为了兼容,保留了这个地址 169.254.169.254。然后通过iptables nat映射到真实的api上:

iptables -A nova-network-PREROUTING -d 169.254.169.254/32 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.4:8775

使用metadata会带来便利,但是经常碰到的一个问题是,metadata获取不成功,导致instance启动很慢,并且获取失败会导致ssh key等功能设置失效,刚才获取ssh的代码片段中,就是尝试10次。需要注意的是:

1、在 network 上,正确设置相关参数,在 /etc/nova/nova.conf 里配置:

metadata_host=10.0.0.4

这里的 10.0.0.4 是api所在的内网地址

2、network上,要能够连接这个api地址 10.0.0.4

3、由于 api 判断instance是通过fix ip 来判断的,所以instance的fix ip地址段,一定要能够正确连接 api 所在 ip, 并且没有经过 nat 地址转换。否则不能正确获取instance 的metadata

openstack 的 metadata获取,我修正了一个bug:
https://review.openstack.org/#/c/5961/
https://code.launchpad.net/bugs/968453

但是,在某些场合,管理地址分开的情况下,还有bug, 需要继续改进:

https://bugs.launchpad.net/nova/+bug/982356

此条目发表在OpenStack分类目录。将固定链接加入收藏夹。

什么是openstack的 metadata》有 430 条评论

  1. Pingback引用通告: 理解 OpenStack 高可用(HA)(2):Neutron L3 Agent HA 之 虚拟路由冗余协议(VRRP)-操作系统相关

  2. Pingback引用通告: view website

  3. Pingback引用通告: smettere di fumare

  4. Pingback引用通告: for more

  5. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  6. Pingback引用通告: coupon levitra

  7. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  8. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  9. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra prices

  10. Pingback引用通告: 200 cialis coupon

  11. Pingback引用通告: cialis coupon

  12. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil

  13. Pingback引用通告: cialis 30 day sample

  14. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil 5mg

  15. Pingback引用通告: viagra oral jelly online mail-order pharmacies

  16. Pingback引用通告: viagra soft tabs online mail-order pharmacies

  17. Pingback引用通告: order viagra online

  18. Pingback引用通告: viagra super active online mail-order pharmacies

  19. Pingback引用通告: viagra 50 mg

  20. Pingback引用通告: superdrug viagra

  21. Pingback引用通告: female viagra

  22. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra generic

  23. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil citrate

  24. Pingback引用通告: online viagra

  25. Pingback引用通告: pink female viagra online mail-order pharmacies

  26. Pingback引用通告: 50mg viagra

  27. Pingback引用通告: canadian viagra

  28. Pingback引用通告: viagra generic availability

  29. Pingback引用通告: red viagra online mail-order pharmacies

  30. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  31. Pingback引用通告: cheap 50 mg viagra

  32. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra 100 mg

  33. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra online

  34. Pingback引用通告: viagra for women

  35. Pingback引用通告: viagra prices

  36. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  37. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra generic

  38. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100 mg

  39. Pingback引用通告: viagra over the counter

  40. Pingback引用通告: viagra coupons

  41. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra

  42. Pingback引用通告: viagra tablets

  43. Pingback引用通告: womens viagra

  44. Pingback引用通告: buy 100 mg viagra

  45. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra 100mg

  46. Pingback引用通告: viagra on line

  47. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  48. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra 50mg

  49. Pingback引用通告: cheap 100 mg viagra

  50. Pingback引用通告: women viagra

  51. Pingback引用通告: coupon sildenafil

  52. Pingback引用通告: viagra cost

  53. Pingback引用通告: buy 50 mg viagra

  54. Pingback引用通告: viagra buy

  55. Pingback引用通告: viagra

  56. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil cost

  57. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra online mail-order pharmacies

  58. Pingback引用通告: 50 mg viagra

  59. Pingback引用通告: viagra online

  60. Pingback引用通告: over the counter viagra

  61. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  62. Pingback引用通告: cheap generic viagra

  63. Pingback引用通告: cheap viagra 50 mg

  64. Pingback引用通告: viagra online paypal uk

  65. Pingback引用通告: viagra 50mg

  66. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra available

  67. Pingback引用通告: gold viagra online mail-order pharmacies

  68. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 50 mg

  69. Pingback引用通告: buy 20mg levitra

  70. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra

  71. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil online

  72. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 20 mg

  73. Pingback引用通告: 10mg levitra

  74. Pingback引用通告: cheap 10 mg levitra

  75. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 10mg

  76. Pingback引用通告: cheap levitra online

  77. Pingback引用通告: cheap levitra 10mg

  78. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil prices

  79. Pingback引用通告: levitra rezeptfrei deutschland

  80. Pingback引用通告: cheap vardenafil online

  81. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra generic

  82. Pingback引用通告: levitra prices

  83. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 10 mg

  84. Pingback引用通告: cheap 10mg levitra

  85. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil buy

  86. Pingback引用通告: buy 10mg levitra

  87. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  88. Pingback引用通告: levitra coupon

  89. Pingback引用通告: levitra 10mg

  90. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  91. Pingback引用通告: 10 mg levitra

  92. Pingback引用通告: buy vardenafil online

  93. Pingback引用通告: buy 10 mg levitra

  94. Pingback引用通告: levitra cost

  95. Pingback引用通告: cheap levitra 20 mg

  96. Pingback引用通告: cheap levitra 10 mg

  97. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  98. Pingback引用通告: cheap levitra 20mg

  99. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil cost

  100. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20 mg bayer prezzo

  101. Pingback引用通告: levitra 10 mg

  102. Pingback引用通告: buy 20 mg levitra

  103. Pingback引用通告: 20mg levitra

  104. Pingback引用通告: generic cialis at walmart

  105. Pingback引用通告: cialis professional online mail-order pharmacies

  106. Pingback引用通告: coupon tadalafil

  107. Pingback引用通告: cialis tablets

  108. Pingback引用通告: generic for cialis

  109. Pingback引用通告: cialis prices

  110. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil cost

  111. Pingback引用通告: cialis daily

  112. Pingback引用通告: cialis for sale

  113. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil buy

  114. Pingback引用通告: buy 20 mg cialis

  115. Pingback引用通告: cialis 20mg

  116. Pingback引用通告: cheap cialis online

  117. Pingback引用通告: cialis 20

  118. Pingback引用通告: cheap cialis 20 mg

  119. Pingback引用通告: viagra for men

  120. Pingback引用通告: cheap 100mg viagra

  121. Pingback引用通告: pfizer viagra

  122. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  123. Pingback引用通告: 100 mg viagra

  124. Pingback引用通告: viagra professional online mail-order pharmacies

  125. Pingback引用通告: viagra canada

  126. Pingback引用通告: natural viagra

  127. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil

  128. Pingback引用通告: tesco viagra

  129. Pingback引用通告: hard on viagra jelly online mail-order pharmacies

  130. Pingback引用通告: brand viagra online mail-order pharmacies

  131. Pingback引用通告: order viagra

  132. Pingback引用通告: viagra pills

  133. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil coupon

  134. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 20mg

  135. Pingback引用通告: levitra

  136. Pingback引用通告: buy 20mg levitra

  137. Pingback引用通告: 10 mg levitra

  138. Pingback引用通告: levitra coupon

  139. Pingback引用通告: buy 20 mg levitra

  140. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20 mg

  141. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 20 mg

  142. Pingback引用通告: cheap generic levitra

  143. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil

  144. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil online

  145. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  146. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra 20mg

  147. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic

  148. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic

  149. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  150. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  151. Pingback引用通告: generic cialis

  152. Pingback引用通告: generic cialis

  153. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  154. Pingback引用通告: cialis generic

  155. Pingback引用通告: buy generic cialis online

  156. Pingback引用通告: generic cialis tadalafil

  157. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  158. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  159. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap cialis online

  160. Pingback引用通告: cialis generic

  161. Pingback引用通告: cialis online

  162. Pingback引用通告: cialis online

  163. Pingback引用通告: cialis generic

  164. Pingback引用通告: buy generic cialis online

  165. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis online

  166. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic cialis 20mg

  167. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic

  168. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis

  169. Pingback引用通告: cialis online

  170. Pingback引用通告: cialis 20mg

  171. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic

  172. Pingback引用通告: cialis 20mg

  173. Pingback引用通告: cialis generic

  174. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis online

  175. Pingback引用通告: buy generic cialis online

  176. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic

  177. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis

  178. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis online

  179. Pingback引用通告: cialis online

  180. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis online

  181. Pingback引用通告: tadalafil generic cialis 20mg

  182. Pingback引用通告: generic cialis

  183. Pingback引用通告: buy generic cialis online

  184. Pingback引用通告: buy cialis

  185. Pingback引用通告: cialis online

  186. Pingback引用通告: cialis 20mg

  187. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  188. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  189. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  190. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  191. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  192. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  193. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  194. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  195. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  196. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  197. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra 100mg

  198. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  199. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  200. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  201. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  202. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  203. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  204. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  205. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  206. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  207. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  208. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  209. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  210. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  211. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  212. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  213. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  214. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  215. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  216. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  217. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  218. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  219. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  220. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  221. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  222. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  223. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  224. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  225. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  226. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  227. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  228. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra 100mg

  229. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  230. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  231. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  232. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  233. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  234. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  235. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  236. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  237. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  238. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  239. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  240. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  241. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  242. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  243. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  244. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  245. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  246. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  247. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  248. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  249. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra 100mg

  250. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  251. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  252. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  253. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  254. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  255. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra 100mg

  256. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  257. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  258. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  259. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  260. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  261. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  262. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  263. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  264. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  265. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  266. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  267. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  268. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  269. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  270. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  271. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  272. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  273. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  274. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  275. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  276. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  277. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  278. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  279. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  280. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  281. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  282. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra 100mg

  283. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  284. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  285. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  286. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  287. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  288. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  289. Pingback引用通告: sildenafil 100mg

  290. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  291. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  292. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  293. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil

  294. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  295. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra

  296. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  297. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  298. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  299. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  300. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  301. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  302. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  303. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil 100mg

  304. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  305. Pingback引用通告: buy sildenafil online

  306. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  307. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  308. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  309. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  310. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  311. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil

  312. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  313. Pingback引用通告: generic viagra

  314. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra online

  315. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  316. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra

  317. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  318. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  319. Pingback引用通告: buy generic viagra sildenafil 100mg

  320. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  321. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  322. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra 100mg

  323. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  324. Pingback引用通告: buy viagra online

  325. Pingback引用通告: viagra 100mg

  326. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap levitra online

  327. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  328. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  329. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  330. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  331. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil generic levitra 20mg

  332. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil generic levitra 20mg

  333. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  334. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap levitra online

  335. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra vardenafil

  336. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil generic

  337. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  338. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  339. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  340. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  341. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  342. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  343. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  344. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  345. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  346. Pingback引用通告: Google

  347. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  348. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  349. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  350. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  351. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  352. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  353. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  354. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  355. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  356. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  357. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  358. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil generic levitra 20mg

  359. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  360. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  361. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra vardenafil

  362. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  363. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  364. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  365. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  366. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  367. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil generic

  368. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  369. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  370. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap levitra online

  371. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  372. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  373. Pingback引用通告: buy cheap levitra online

  374. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  375. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  376. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  377. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  378. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  379. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  380. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  381. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  382. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  383. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  384. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  385. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  386. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  387. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  388. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  389. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  390. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  391. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  392. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  393. Pingback引用通告: levitra online

  394. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  395. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  396. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  397. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  398. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  399. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  400. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  401. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  402. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  403. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  404. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  405. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  406. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  407. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  408. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  409. Pingback引用通告: levitra 20mg

  410. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  411. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra

  412. Pingback引用通告: vardenafil 20mg

  413. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  414. Pingback引用通告: generic levitra

  415. Pingback引用通告: buy generic levitra online

  416. Pingback引用通告: buy levitra online

  417. Pingback引用通告: levitra generic

  418. Pingback引用通告: hollywood

  419. Pingback引用通告: Used Simulators by Ameritec at used-line

  420. Pingback引用通告: Lego city 60107

  421. Pingback引用通告: cryptobot

  422. Pingback引用通告: cryptobot

  423. Pingback引用通告: asus cpu-z v1.72.1

  424. Pingback引用通告: cryptobot

  425. Pingback引用通告: tradeing bot

  426. Pingback引用通告: tradeing bot

  427. Pingback引用通告: tubidy

  428. Pingback引用通告: tradeing bot

  429. Pingback引用通告: burberry

  430. Pingback引用通告: versace

评论功能已关闭。