什么是openstack的 metadata

metadata字面上是元数据,是一个不容易理解的概念。在除了openstack的其他场合也经常会碰到。openstack里的metadata,是提供一个机制给用户,可以设定每一个instance 的参数。

具体可以参见openstack的相关api和以下的蓝图:

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/nova/+spec/openstack-api-metadata

比如你想给instance设置某个属性,比如主机名。metadata的一个重要应用,是设置每个instance的ssh公钥。公钥的设置有两种方式:

1、创建instance时注入文件镜像

2、启动instance后,通过metadata获取,然后用脚本写入

第二种方式更加灵活,可以给非root用户注入公钥。以下是获取ssh key的代码片段:

# Fetch public key using HTTP
ATTEMPTS=10
while [ ! -f /root/.ssh/authorized_keys ]; do
    curl -f http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key > /tmp/aws-key 2>/dev/null
    if [ \$? -eq 0 ]; then
        cat /tmp/aws-key >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        chmod 0600 /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        restorecon /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
        rm -f /tmp/aws-key
        echo "Successfully retrieved AWS public key from instance metadata"
    else
        FAILED=\$((\$FAILED + 1))
        if [ \$FAILED -ge \$ATTEMPTS ]; then
            echo "Failed to retrieve AWS public key after \$FAILED attempts, quitting"
            break
        fi
        echo "Could not retrieve AWS public key (attempt #\$FAILED/\$ATTEMPTS), retrying in 5 seconds..."
        sleep 5
    fi
done

可以看到,获取metadata的api接口是:

http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-keys/0/openssh-key

可是,这个IP地址,在我们 openstack 是不存在的。为什么可以获取到metadata呢?

这是由于Amazon的原因,最早metadata是亚马逊提出来的,参见:

http://docs.amazonwebservices.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/AESDG-chapter-instancedata.html

后来很多人给亚马逊定制了一些操作系统的镜像,比如 ubuntu, fedora, centos 等等,而且将里面获取 metadta 的api地址也写死了。所以opentack为了兼容,保留了这个地址 169.254.169.254。然后通过iptables nat映射到真实的api上:

iptables -A nova-network-PREROUTING -d 169.254.169.254/32 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.4:8775

使用metadata会带来便利,但是经常碰到的一个问题是,metadata获取不成功,导致instance启动很慢,并且获取失败会导致ssh key等功能设置失效,刚才获取ssh的代码片段中,就是尝试10次。需要注意的是:

1、在 network 上,正确设置相关参数,在 /etc/nova/nova.conf 里配置:

metadata_host=10.0.0.4

这里的 10.0.0.4 是api所在的内网地址

2、network上,要能够连接这个api地址 10.0.0.4

3、由于 api 判断instance是通过fix ip 来判断的,所以instance的fix ip地址段,一定要能够正确连接 api 所在 ip, 并且没有经过 nat 地址转换。否则不能正确获取instance 的metadata

openstack 的 metadata获取,我修正了一个bug:
https://review.openstack.org/#/c/5961/
https://code.launchpad.net/bugs/968453

但是,在某些场合,管理地址分开的情况下,还有bug, 需要继续改进:

https://bugs.launchpad.net/nova/+bug/982356

此条目发表在OpenStack分类目录。将固定链接加入收藏夹。

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